The glossary explains some of the words used across this website and covers some key cancer and research terms, which primarily focus on lung cancer.

Benign tumour

A growth of cells that are not cancerous. A benign tumour does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body and is not generally considered harmful.1 See also ‘Malignant tumour’


Molecular indicators of an underlying condition or susceptibility for developing a disease.1 Biomarkers may be produced by the cancer tissue itself or by other cells in the body in response to cancer, and can be found in the blood, stool, urine, tumour tissue, other tissues or bodily fluids.2 They can also be used to see how well the body responds to a treatment for a disease.


A procedure in which samples of lung tissue are removed to determine if lung disease or cancer is present.3 It is one of several techniques used to diagnose cancer. See also ‘Early diagnosis’

Budget impact analysis

An economic assessment that estimates the financial consequences of adopting a new health technology or intervention within a specific context.4 See also ‘cost-effective analysis’.


  1. National Cancer Institute. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. Available from: [Accessed 04/03/22]

  2. My Cancer. What are biomarkers? Available from: [Accessed 30/03/22]

  3. John Hopkins Medicine. Lung biopsy. Available from: [Accessed 30/03/22]

  4. Mauskopf JA, Sullivan SD, Annemans L, et al. 2007. Principles of good practice for budget impact analysis: report of the ISPOR Task Force on good research practices–budget impact analysis. Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research 10(5): 336-47